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By Do D.D.

ISBN-10: 1860941303

ISBN-13: 9781860941306

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Extra resources for Adsorption analysis: Equilibria and kinetics

Sample text

Isobutylene and 1-Butene. T h e title m o n o m e r s w e r e copolymerized in t h e p r e s e n c e of dihydroxyfluorboric acid at 20°C. T h e C 8 olefins o b tained from the reaction w e r e hydrogenated to the corresponding o c t a n e s ; nearly half of the o c t a n e s w e r e derived from dimers of isobutylene, and the rest w e r e codimers of the original m o n o m e r s . T h e h y d r o g e n a t e d dimers w e r e c o m p o s e d of 2,2,4- and 2,3,4-trimethylpentane. T h e h y d r o genated codimers consisted of 2,2- and 2,3-dimethylhexane and 2,2,3-tri- ΙΠ.

2. Sulfuric Acid W h e n alkenes such as b u t y l è n e s , 3-methyl-1-butene, and n o n e n e s w e r e treated with an equal v o l u m e of 9 6 % H 2 S 0 4 at 0°C, the h y d r o c a r b o n s dissolved at first in acid. On standing at 0°C t w o layers s e p a r a t e d . T h e t o p layer a m o u n t e d to 7 0 % by weight of the original alkenes; the sulfuric acid layer s h o w e d an approximately 2 0 % increase in volume o v e r that of the starting acid. Approximately 3 2 - 4 0 % of the p r o d u c t in the h y d r o c a r b o n layer boiled below 220°C and w a s completely saturated.

M u c h of the information relating to this reaction is derived from alkene reactions catalyzed by c o n c e n t r a t e d sulfuric acid, h y d r o g e n fluoride, B F 3 / H F , and A I C I 3 / H C I . Phosphoric acid at t e m p e r a t u r e s a b o v e 300°C c a u s e s conj u n c t polymerization of ethylene and p r o p e n e , but the type of p r o d u c t s obtained differs from t h o s e obtained with the stronger acids. 2. Sulfuric Acid W h e n alkenes such as b u t y l è n e s , 3-methyl-1-butene, and n o n e n e s w e r e treated with an equal v o l u m e of 9 6 % H 2 S 0 4 at 0°C, the h y d r o c a r b o n s dissolved at first in acid.

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