By Jonathan Sutherland
African americans at conflict: An Encyclopedia КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: ABC-CLIOАвтор(ы): Jonathan D. SutherlandЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2004Количество страниц: 844ISBN: 1-85109-371-0Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 11.0 mb RapidIfolder zero
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A system of affirmative action is in place to deal with equality and discrimination issues. Whether this system is effective and fair is the subject of ongoing debate. See also Powell, Colin Luther; Vietnam War References and Further Reading Beckwith, Francis J. Affirmative Action. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997. | 13 | A l e x a n d e r, C l i f f o r d L . , J r. Rubio, Philip F. A History of Affirmative Action: 1619–2000. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001. , Jr. (b. 1933) Clifford was the first African American secretary of the army.
Commanders in the field were given little guidance concerning these fugitives. They were free once they had reached the sanctuary of the North, but Union officers had to decide what to do with them. S. Congress passed the Confiscation Act. This act provided for the seizure of property held by rebels that could be used to continue the prosecution of war against the Union. In effect this meant that fugitives were still considered property and considered contraband. At least for the first two or three years of the civil war, the majority of fugitives lived in contraband camps.
Edith De Voe became the first African American regular navy nurse, and in March of that year, 1st Lt. Nancy C. Leftenant became the first African American woman in the regular army nurse corps after serving in the reserve corps since February 1945. African American women still served in support or noncombat roles until the Gulf War. In Vietnam, CWO Doris Allen was a senior intelligence analyst and reported that although she was both female and African American, she encountered very few prejudices.